The Foundational Model of Anatomy or FMA is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy. It is a representation of all the anatomical entities and relationships necessary for the symbolic modeling of the phenotypic structure of the human body in a form that is understandable to humans and is also navigable and processable by machine-based systems. We use the Protégé-2000 ontology editing and knowledge acquisition environment for encoding the FMA, because its frame-based architecture, which is compatible with the Open Knowledge Base Connectivity (OKBC) protocol, provides for an expressive, scalable and tractable representation of anatomical entities and the complex relationships that exist between them. You can get more information on the FMA at    (453)    (454)

You can view the FMA on the web using our browser called the Foundational Model Explorer of FME ( It is an Internet based software application developed for viewing the content and organization of the FMA. You can also get a copy of the FMA knowledge base after obtaining the appropriate license from our website. There is no fee for the academic or non-commercial license.    (455)

The FMA is rather complex and it may help you to read about it. There are three articles that provide a background for the FMA:    (456)    (457)    (458)    (459)

The first one should be particularly informative. But there are many papers about the FMA in the Publications section of the website for the Structural Informatics Group [SIG] at    (45A)    (45B)